Digi Teachers



Is the practice of making information, activities, and environments sensible, meaningful and usable for as many people as possible.   

Web accessibility means that websites, tools and technologies are designed and developed so that people with disabilities can use them. More specifically, people can: 

  • perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the web 
  • contribute to the web 

Web accessibility encompasses all disabilities that affect access to the web:

  • auditory 
  • cognitive 
  • neurological 
  • physical 
  • speech 
  • visual. 

Web accessibility also benefits people without disabilities.


Assistive technology

(AT) is any item, piece of equipment, software program, or product system that is used to improve the functional capabilities of persons with disabilities. 

AT can be for example  

  • screen reading software 
  • text-to-speech systems 
  • phones with large tactile buttons 
  • communication boards  
  • audio books  
  • screen magnification software  
  • alternative keyboards  
  • voice recognition. 


Blended learning

(also known as hybrid learning) combines online educational material and possibilities to interaction online with traditional place-based classroom methods. E-learning components can be for example games, videos, tutorials, quizzes or social media components. The amount of place-based classroom learning can vary, but the two very different approaches of learning blend to each other.


Collaborative learning

In collaborative learning, students organise their efforts among themselves. The students work on a given project as a team. The activity is not monitored by the teacher (although they can help when assistance is requested by the group). In cooperative learning, students are divided into groups and the teacher assigns specific roles and tasks to each student, so it is a teacher-structured activity. Collaborative learning often is a voluntary activity, and those students who are genuinely interested can participate. Cooperative learning is a compulsory activityfor all the students who are present in the classroom. Some pedagogues see collaborative learning as an essential part of school culture, whilst cooperative learning is a method of working or an interaction structure.  

Creative Commons

Is a mindset and a set of tools that help to share your work. Creative Commons copyright licenses provide an easy way to give your permission to share and use your creative work, such as teaching material. Even if you don’t produce material yourself, these licenses tell you how you can use material that others have produced.  

For example, CC BY license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon the material, as long as the attribution is given to the creator.  

Learn more about Creative Commons and the licenses here: https://creativecommons.org/about/cclicenses/   

Distance teaching

Is a way of education where students receive instructions through online classes, video recordings, video conferencing etc. Learners don’t have to be physically present in a classroom. Distance learning can be synchronous, when the teaching happens in real-time and the learning requires live communication online. It can also be asynchronous, when the learners can access course content beyond the scheduled meeting or class time and interact through online conversations, quizzes or video comments on their own schedule. https://www.techsmith.com/blog/distance-learning 

Flipped classroom

Aims to increase learner’s engagement. The learner studies the subject independently (watches a video, reads a text etc.) before meeting with the teacher. During the meeting (usually lesson) with the teacher, it is possible to study the subject further (discussions, lab experiments, doing the exercises so that the teacher can help the learner etc.). This is the very opposite of the regular lessons, where the teachers teach a new subject in the lesson and the learners train independently when doing the homework. https://www.tegachthought.com/learning/definition-flipped-classroom/ 

Hybrid teaching

Contains both digital and place-based activities. In this training module hybrid teaching means the situation, where a part of the learners is in the classroom and another part is learning from the distance. Teaching happens somewhat simultaneously both in the classroom and through digital channels.  

Learning portfolio

A learning portfolio is a (nowadays often) digital collection of a learner’s work, ideas and personal experiences. Portfolios show learning progression, evidence of professional growth and self-reflection.   

Multimodal learning

Means utilising all our senses in learning. Most people understand and remember more when all of our senses are activated while learning. There are four main methods in multimodal learning: visual, auditory, reading and writing, and kinesthetic (VARK). It is useful to add elements of all these modes to create learning material that engages the learner.   

  • Visual learning involves the use of graphs, infographics, cartoons and illustrations, videos, artwork, flowcharts, and diagrams.  
  • Auditory learning can be a podcast, webinar, audiobook, or an instructor talking to learners face-to-face. Group discussions or debates are also part of auditory learning.  
  • Kinesthetic learning gets learners active; it can involve site visits, demonstrations or multimedia presentations. It’s often a combination of several types of learning together; for example, making a video combines visual, auditory and kinesthetic skills.  
  • Reading and writing is the traditional way of learning and reading books or answering to questions on a paper are good ways to learn for many.  

The first step with multimodal learning is to plan how you can add more modes to your courses. When you’re creating your course, start to use different formats, like video, slides, and audio.  

You can start small by using resources outside of your organisation, like YouTube videos and podcasts on your topic. From here, you can then start creating your own videos, slides, audio, or interactive learning sessions.  

You can use blended learning techniques that combine face-to-face training with online instruction. You can hold a live training session with a group of learners, post some extra resources for them online, and finally assign a task or exam online to ensure they understood the topic.  

You can give multimodal assignments to your learners. Your learners can create a video or audio project in a group or by themselves. You can set up a quiz for them to take. Multimodal assignments help the learners to get creative and encourage them to use different parts of their brain.  

You can also give feedback through different kind of channels: face-to-face, as a text, on a video or in a picture.  


OJT, on-the-job training

Is learning how to the job while in the working role. There are a lot of possibilities how to use digital tools in OJT.  

Online course

An online course is a program of learning that is organised according to a syllabus (often in units) and takes place in a digital platform or a virtual space.  

Open badges

Open badges are digital representations of achievements, skills, or knowledge that individuals have gained.

They serve as portable credentials that can be displayed and shared online. Open badges are often used in education, professional development, and other learning environments to recognize and validate competencies or milestones.

Technically, an Open badge is a digital picture, which contains metadata providing information about the issuer, date of issue, badge description and competence criteria for earning the badge.

Badges also promote lifelong learning that extends beyond the classroom and brings to light accomplishments that otherwise might stay hidden.

PBL, problem-based learning

In PBL, problem-based learning, learners are given a problem they need to solve. They must identify by themselves which information is needed, learn the information and apply it to the problem.  

Plain language

Plain language (also called plain writing or plain English) is language that your audience can understand the first time they read or hear it. You don’t always have to use plain language, but it is important to use clear and understandable language, that makes it easy  for everybody to access information.  

Follow at least these rules: 

  • Common, everyday words  
  • No abbreviations 
  • Explain new words and terms, when you use them for the first time. 
  • Short sentences and paragraphs 
  • Use you and other pronouns. 
  • Use active verbs, don’t use passive or participial phrases. 
  • Easy-to-follow design features (lists, headers, tables) 
  • Tell first familiar things and broad concepts, then new things and small details. 



Self-efficacy means learner’s beliefs in their capabilities to achieve a goal. Learners with high self-efficacy try to solve the problems even if they seem hard. 

Tips to improve self-efficacy 

  • Use moderately-difficult tasks  
    A task too easy will be boring or embarrassing and may give the feeling that the teacher doubts learner’s abilities; a too-difficult task will re-enforce low self-efficacy. The target for difficulty is slightly above the learner’s current ability level. 
  • Use peer models  
    Students can learn by watching a peer succeed at a task.  
  • Teach specific learning strategies 
    Give students a concrete plan of attack for working on an assignment, rather than simply turning them loose.  
  • Pay attention to learner’s interests 
    Tie the course material or concepts to learner interests such as sports, pop culture, movies or their vocational branch. 
  • Allow learners to make their own choices 
    Set up some areas of the course that allow students to make their own decisions. 
  • Encourage learners to try 
    Give them consistent, credible and specific encouragement. 
  • Give frequent, focused feedback 
    Giving praise and encouragement is very important, however it must be credible. When giving feedback on performance, compare to past performances by the same learner, don’t make comparisons between learners. 
  • Encourage accurate attributions 
    Help learners understand that they don’t fail because they’re dumb, they fail because they didn’t follow instructions, they didn’t spend enough time on the task, or they didn’t follow through on the learning strategy.


Digital self-efficacy

Refers to a person’s confidence in their ability to use digital technologies effectively and efficiently. 

Digital self-efficacy is important in today’s digital world, where technology is increasingly pervasive and integrated into many aspects of our lives. Individuals who have high levels of digital self-efficacy are better equipped to take advantage of the opportunities that digital technologies provide, including accessing information, learning new skills, and connecting with others. 

Factors that can influence digital self-efficacy include a person’s prior experience with technology, their knowledge and skills related to specific digital tools, and their thoughts about the usefulness and of digital technologies. Increasing digital self-efficacy can be achieved through education and training, exposure to new technologies, and building confidence through successful experiences using digital tools. 

In self-regulated learning the learner has full control of their learning process. The process has four phases: 1) planning and activation 2) monitoring 3) control and 4) reaction and reflection. Self-regulation abilities include goal setting, self-monitoring, self-instruction and self-validation.  

UDL (universal design of learning) is a teaching approach that takes into account the needs and abilities of each learner. The teaching environment should be flexible and the information should be presented in multiple ways, so that all learners can access and participate meaningful learning opportunities.


WCAG = web content accessibility guidelines

There are four main guiding principles of accessibility, POUR.   


  • Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.  
  • Provide alternatives for time-based media.  
  • Create content that is adaptable and can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.  
  • Make the content distinguishable = easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.  


  • Make all functionality available from a keyboard.  
  • Provide users enough time to read and use content.  
  • Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.  
  • Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.  


  • Make text content readable and understandable. Avoid abbreviations, acronyms, and jargon.  
  • Make web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.  
  • Help users avoid and correct mistakes.  


  • Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies. Avoid solutions that demand specific programmes, versions of programmes or operating systems.  


Web-based training

(WBT) is any form of training that is delivered online. Also, the terms internet-based training (IBT), e-learning, computer-based training and distance education are used as synonyms.